Python Timeit Decorator Function

Handling functions as. exit() calls are annoying: when main() calls sys. A quick, sensible route to the joys of Python coding. The basic requirement comes when you want to see how much time your methods are taking. The code for that decorator is repeated below to remind you how it works. There are some built-in decorators. It returns the string representing the value, which is typed by the user. timeit(args) returns a float which represents the time taken to execute the given code. Python decorators are convenient ways to make changes to the functionality of code without making changes to the code. And since wraps is itself a decorator I guess it'll make things a lot easier. So, let’s first create the decorator function. This is a variation on the decorator approach. macros,stata. The following are code examples for showing how to use timeit. from timeit import default_timer as _timer: def timeit (_func = None, *, repeat = 3, number = 1000, file = sys. In order to describe how the @property decorator works, let's take a look at a simpler decorator and how it works internally. @decorator. But after wrapping hello_world with the decorator function it now produces a tuple return statement of (string, duration) produced by the timeit decorator. 14, 2011, 5:36 p. Timing Code. Getting back to Decorators. However, under the covers they run under the supervision of a manager that coordinates their execution. I modified it slightly to check for exceptions instead of a False return value to indicate failure. They are different things. By default, timeout-decorator uses signals to limit the execution time of the given function. If you are about to ask a "how do I do this in python" question, please try r/learnpython, the Python discord, or the #python IRC channel on FreeNode. Python’s philosophy is built on top of the idea of well thought out best practices. The trick to writing high performance python code is to do the critical part with no python function calls in the inner loop. Thus, timeit will be the focus of this tutorial. The statement will by default be executed within timeit's namespace; this behavior can be controlled by passing a namespace to globals. In the context of design patterns, decorators dynamically alter the functionality of a function, method or class without having to directly use subclasses. In the case of a Python script, using the previous command does not give you any information on which function is executed at a given time. A parameter decorator cannot be used in a declaration file, an overload, or in any other ambient context (such as in a declare class). from timeit import Timer import Decorators @Decorators. After install Pytest, we should be able to run the command below without any change in the code and get the same results. Python's Decorator Syntax. Decorators augment the behavior of other functions or methods. That's what decorators do in Python -- they modify functions, and in the case of class decorators, entire classes. Set numOutputs to 1 to time the s = svd(X) syntax, or set it to 3 to time the [U,S,V] = svd(X) syntax. A Python decorator for measuring the execution time of methods As Python developer you often have the need for profiling and benchmarking applications. It avoids a number of common traps for measuring execution times. Join 575,000 other learners and get started learning Python for data science today! Welcome. This is a tutorial in Python3, but this chapter of our course is available in a version for Python 2. Now, we pass the method Person. A function is merely an object of type function. Parameters (arguments) through which we pass values to a function. Here is how get a tm struct in Python:. class timeit. Time execution of a Python statement or expression using the timeit module. It has both command line as well as callable interfaces. It returns the string representing the value, which is typed by the user. %timeit makes several runs and takes the best result, if the copy wasn't done inside the timing code the vector would only be unsorted in the first iteration. Accelerate Python Functions. Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. When writing decorators, you may have encountered TypeErrors. When python sees \@display_arguments, it calls the display_arguments with the wrapped functions (my_add or my_deduct) as the argument. The first is decorators, which I did not cover at all, and the second is context managers which I only gave one example of. How to measure the duration of a function call or code block in python The simple way to measure the duration of function call in python using context management. So, Flask is arguably perpetuating a slight abuse of decorators, since it doesn't decorate or wrap your function at all, but merely saves a reference to it somewhere. What is a Python Decorator. Once you've learned basic python,this is a great resource. Python has many built-in high-level data structures and utilizes dynamic typing and binding, making it an excellent choice for both scripting and application development. And the display_arguments defines a new function called display_and_call, which is a modified version of the wrapped function. A quick, sensible route to the joys of Python coding. This is the essence of functional programming. You can start with simple function decorators to automatically compile your functions, or use the powerful CUDA libraries exposed by pyculib. time for reasons described earlier. 1005 Gravenstein Hwy North, Sebastopol, CA 95472, USA ©2016, O’Reilly Media, Inc. Mighty, lissome, and tabby. You want to see the speed of f1, f2, when the argument is huge. ' Decorators are most often used to extend a function, by adding something either before or after it. This diagram shows how each of those functions is called:. If useful() function is refactored and someone removes all await expressions from it, it would become a regular python function, and all code that depends on it, including important() would be broken. quiet describe, varlist. Or you change the final line to fib(N-2)+fib(N-1)—swapping the order of the calculation so that fib(N-1), which is more important for the rest of the calculation, is kept in the cache. Python 101: An Intro to Benchmarking Your Code create a setup string to import the function into timeit's namespace and then we call timeit. Lesson 15: Coroutines Starting in Python 3. Python by Example. If you would like to learn about functions, take DataCamp's Python Data Science Toolbox (Part 1) course. The easiest fixtures to add are: setup_module() function: runs before anything else in the file. Runtime Stats for Functions | Python Decorator Posted by Garren on 2016/10/21 In a similar vein to my prior Python decorator metadata for functions (“meta_func” => github | PyPi | blog ), this decorator is intended to help illuminate the number of calls and time taken per call aggregates. I'll save decorator arguments, along with class decorators, for the next article in this series. Imports, modules and packages. A decorator is a function that takes a function or method as its sole argument and returns a new function or method that incorporates the decorated function or method with some additional functionality added. Even though it is the same underlying concept, we have two different kinds of decorators in Python: Function decorators Class decorators A decorator in Python is any callable Python object that is used to modify a function or a class. The simpler way to time a function is to define a decorator that measures the elapsed time in running the function, and prints the result:. The 3rd edition has been revised and updated to focus on the most recent innovations in Python; In Detail. timeit 模块定义了接受两个参数的 Timer 类。两个参数都是字符串。 第一个参数是你要计时的语句或者函数。. You can dynamically create or destroy them, pass them to other functions, return them as values, and so forth. The timeit module can also be accessed from the command line. In the first part of the little Numba series I've planned we will focus mainly on the @jit decorator. Basically, a decorator takes in a function, adds some functionality and returns it. The syntax. Here’s a link if you’re curious about visualizing the execution stack, in which order the function and decorators will be executed. To convert it into the integer, we need to use the int() function in Python. Until now, Python did not provide directly a portable function to measure CPU time. I'm trying to time some code. timeit (stmt='pass', setup='pass', timer=, number=1000000) ¶ Create a Timer instance with the given statement, setup code and timer function and run its timeit() method with number executions. The best explanation of Python decorators I've ever seen. If a decorator expects a function and 5 returns a function (no descriptors), and if it doesn't 6 modify function attributes or docstring, then it is 7 eligible to use this. Create your decorator: A decorator is a function that may or may not return a function object. Two weeks ago I wrote a post called Python: tips, tricks and idioms where I went though a whole lot of features of python. Decorators are a way to dynamically alter the functionality of your functions. Set comprehensions are very similar. Apply Python to data science with tools such as IPython and Jupyter; Utilize Python for web development and build a real-world app using Django; Book Description. In Python 3. Sign up The python decorator to measure function time. Use timer from timeit instead of time. For example, in functools you have the wraps decorator. Python decorators add functionality to functions and methods at definition time, they are not used to add functionality at run time. can stack more than one decorator over a function definition. In addition, we will discuss functions (and other callables) that are specifically designed for use as decorators. If all you want is just to "run this function in parallel (= asynchronously) to the main program code", then this recipe can be of use. Ability to keep gc enabled for block timing. COOL HUH! Just as a quick aside we can. This is not built into Python or IPython, but there is a line_profiler package available for installation that can do this. To work with Python, it is very recommended to use a programming environment. A Python decorator for measuring the execution time of methods As Python developer you often have the need for profiling and benchmarking applications. Here's a link if you're curious about visualizing the execution stack, in which order the function and decorators will be executed. Common examples for decorators are classmethod () and staticmethod (). memoize def. O’Reilly School of Technology, A Division of O’Reilly Media, Inc. The DecoratorPattern is a pattern described in the DesignPatternsBook. It is renowned for its high readability and hence it is often the first language learned by new programmers. In either case, it’s assumed that decorator is a function that has already been defined. py test`` Notice that you may run into trouble if in your system there is an older version of the decorator module; in such a case remove the old version. For some problems, there is no convenient way to solve them with NumPy alone. py Function calculate_squares being called at 2018-08-23 12:39:02. And now we see this name, __builtins__, returned by a call to dir(). As you can see, instead of mentioning one class name in parentheses along with the child class, we have mentioned two class names, separated by comma ,. The Excel UDF will take a string, but before your Python function is called the conversion function will be used to convert that string to a CustomType instance. be None (at least as far as the second inner function is concerned. A decorator is just a function taking the fct to be decorated and. Python comes with a module called timeit. X, because function decorators are supported in both, and we use 3. 0014599495514175942 Function B starts the execution Function B completes the execution 0. You have to apply them with the ‘@with_setup’ decorator imported from nose. inspect is a built-in library. It reduces the. It describes how an algorithm behaves in terms of resource use as a function of amount of input data. They are different things. timeit(stmt, setup, timer, number) accepts four arguments: stmt which is the statement you want to measure; it defaults to 'pass'. When using a Python decorator, especially one defined in another library, they seem somewhat magical. Item 1: Know Which Version of Python You’re Using Item 42: Define Function Decorators with functools. wraps is yet another decorator that is built into python. This page shows you how to use timeit module for timing the speed of a function that has one or more parameter. hasValidation = true; } } So the function you return is the actual decorator. And cherished by those savvy. On the surface, coroutines look a lot like normal Python functions. Function Decorators: Wrapping Functions When it comes to augmenting your code, Chapter 9 ’s context management protocol is not the only game in town. Modules/main. Python documentation defines a profile as "a set of statistics that describes how often and for how long various parts of the program executed. They can be passed as arguments to other functions and a new functions can be returned from a function call. It has both command line as well as callable interfaces. Timer object; it usually has a sensible default value so you don't have to worry. $ python decorator_test. The current syntax also allows decorator declarations to call a function that returns a decorator:. This function also displays time required by IPython environment to execute a Python expression. After install Pytest, we should be able to run the command below without any change in the code and get the same results. clock() can be used on Unix, but it has bad resolution. Python is rich with powerful features and expressive syntax. The timeit module provides a simple interface for determining the execution time of small bits of Python code. time() The time() is a core function of the time module. Termination condition: A recursive function has to terminate to be used in a program. Python and other languages like Java, C#, and even C++ have had lambda functions added to their syntax, whereas languages like LISP or the ML family of languages, Haskell, OCaml, and F#, use lambdas as a core concept. >> def decorator (f): Python於是提供了一些語法糖來降低為使用裝飾器而帶來的原始碼輸入量。 import time def timeit. (Replacing the behavior of a method, attribute, object or class). Python (186) Ubuntu (81) OpenContrail (79) OpenStack (78) Django (69) Linux (67) Horizon (27) Networking (27) VMware (27) OpenStack Neutron (26) Git (25) OpenStack Heat (24) Puppet (24) OpenvSwitch (22) Keystone (20) OpenStack Dev Tips (19) go (19) golang (19) linux network namespace (19) Libvirt (18) Cloud (17) Horizon Dev Tips (16) Openstack. It takes advantage of Python's new annotations to provide simple type checking and automatic conversion. Introduce Python partial functions and demonstrate how to use partial functions to define a decorator that takes optional arguments. Python: timeit - decorator func to time your function calls - time_me. timeit(args) returns a float which represents the time taken to execute the given code. jit() decorator. Basically, a decorator takes in a function, adds some functionality and returns it. Developers all over the world are using it for back-end web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, and scientific computing. This has the function_timer() function inside it. After install Pytest, we should be able to run the command below without any change in the code and get the same results. You can decorate a function with multiple decorators i. py test`` Notice that you may run into trouble if in your system there is an older version of the decorator module; in such a case remove the old version. In general, any callable object can be treated as a function for the purposes of this module. Python高级编程——装饰器Decorator超详细讲解(上篇) 送你小心心记得关注我哦!!进入正文 全文摘要装饰器decorator,是python语言的重要特性,我们平时都会遇到,无论是面向对象的设计或者是使用相关的库,但是…. That's not correct: you're calling it one million times, not once. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. 0 brings together the ease of eager execution and the power of TF 1. timeit() How would I give timeit a function with a parameter that's been saved elsewhere. Python Forums on Bytes. The DecoratorPattern is a pattern described in the DesignPatternsBook. Take for example Flask's routing mechanism. def function(): suite decorator A callable that takes another callable as an argument. py Function calculate_squares being called at 2018-08-23 12:39:02. The assumption for a decorator is that we will pass a function as argument and the signature of the inner function in the decorator must match the function to decorate. This is because when you use the @my_decorator syntax, you are applying a wrapper function with a single function as a parameter Remember, everything in Python is an object, and this includes functions! With that in mind, we can write a function that returns a wrapper function. Welcome to part 18 of the intermediate Python programming tutorial series. Closures are possible in Python because functions are first-class objects. He moved from the Netherlands to the USA in 1995, where he met his wife. Similar to Python lists, tuples are another standard data type that allows you to store values in a sequence. 0017024724827479076 Writing our own timer using the decorator function. Python provides many ways to measure the time of execution for a piece of python code. It is safe even to copy the module `decorator. Apart from OpenCV, Python also provides a module time which is helpful in measuring the time of execution. It reduces the. Part of Python for Data Science For Dummies Cheat Sheet. They might be useful in situations where you might want to share the data with someone but not allow them to manipulate the data. This… is a little bit of a brain twister, but ultimately allows us to continue to call psutil. In the context of design patterns, decorators dynamically alter the functionality of a function, method or class without having to directly use subclasses. Python is a programming language supports several programming paradigms including Object-Orientated Programming (OOP) and functional programming. 1 def simple_decorator (decorator): 2 '''This decorator can be used to turn simple functions 3 into well-behaved decorators, so long as the decorators 4 are fairly simple. The module defines three convenience functions and a public class: timeit. Used in conjunction with metaclasses, decorators are a very powerful and expressive way to implement advanced behaviours in our code. Then, Python decorates sum_up_to with the obtained decorator. Time execution of a Python statement or expression using the timeit module. The functools library provides an excellent memoization decorator we can add to the top of our functions. We shall deal with functions for this tutorial. The bar must return True if the argument with the keyword magicnumber is worth 7, and False otherwise. Typically these functions consist of a large ‘switch’ statement, branching based on the kind of node type passed to it. Tiny decorator functions to make it easier to build an API using Django in ~100 LoC Skip to main content Switch to mobile version Warning Some features may not work without JavaScript. O(1) - (Constant performance) Execution time stays constant regardless of how much data is supplied. Decorator Pattern. Python - Multiple Inheritance. Remember that a decorator is basically a callable that accepts another callable, processes it, and returns it. COOL HUH! Just as a quick aside we can. Python HOME Python Intro Python Get Started Python Syntax Python Comments Python Variables Python Numbers Python Casting Python Strings Python Operators Python Lists Python Tuples Python Sets Python Dictionaries Python IfElse Python While Loops Python For Loops Python Functions Python Lambda Python Arrays Python Classes/Objects Python. clock() time. It has both command line as well as callable interfaces. In this series, we're going to be taking the "next steps" after one has become comfortable with the basics of Python, and has been working with it for a bit. In Python, functions are first-class objects. Python 3 Language Changes; Decorators. decorator and function local variable. To mitigate this issue a decorator similar to @asyncio. Along with this, we will learn Python Decorators with Parameters and Python Pie Syntax. timeit for mean running times over all iterations processed, summary. lookfor "Circle" storage display value. Micro-benchmarks are not always useful. An example of this is Flask. In our previous tutorial, we were talking about list comprehension and generators, and the. Decorator accepts functions with named or unnamed params. And the display_arguments defines a new function called display_and_call, which is a modified version of the wrapped function. Programming in Python can be extremely quick and productive owing to the lack of a compilation step as well as the built-in debugger (also written in Python). and there are some tools made for this purpose. The assumption for a decorator is that we will pass a function as argument and the signature of the inner function in the decorator must match the function to decorate. wraps return an ‘async’ function decorator if you pass an async function to decorate? It’s indifferent? or it’s necessary to create a new “functools. some_function() ``` ### As a decorator Use fuckit as a function decorator when a single function is giving you trouble. The module defines three convenience functions and a public class: timeit. timeit (stmt='pass', setup='pass', timer=, number=1000000) ¶ Create a Timer instance with the given statement, setup code and timer function and run its timeit() method with number executions. Conclusion: Python Function Arguments. Still, ‘’Cython is not a Python to C translator’‘. One of my favorites is decorators. You could use these tags for many things: Adding information about who has worked on the function, so a user can look up who to ask if they run into trouble. Python recognizes built-in functions without our having to do anything. I ran it with the Julia command line interface, on the same machine as the one used to run Python. By choosing the operators wisely, mathematicians can employ their visual brain to help them do math better: they'll discover new interesting laws sooner because sometimes the symbols on the blackboard just jump at you and suggest a path to an elusive proof. (An archived answer from StackOverflow. time() time. Python’s decorator is a powerful tool to wrap (decorate) functions, such as add some pre-processing steps before the function, or post-processing steps after it. Note: In Python, functions are “first-class citizens. This sounds confusing, but it’s really not, especially after you’ve seen a few examples of how decorators work. the Decorator Pattern; History of Macros; The Goal of Macros; What Can You Do With Decorators? Function Decorators; Slightly More Useful; Using Functions as Decorators; Review: Decorators without Arguments; Decorators with Arguments; Decorator Functions with Decorator Arguments; Further. That is, it doesn’t take your full program and “turns it into C” – rather, the result makes full use of the Python runtime environment. Functions and methods are called callable as they can be called. Python decorator to measure the execution time of methods created the @timeit decorator which allows you to measure the execution time of the method/function by just adding the @timeit. Motivation for the syntax changes proposed here comes from the asyncio framework ( PEP 3156) and the "Cofunctions" proposal ( PEP 3152, now rejected in favor of this specification). function, which allows you to transform a subset of Python syntax into portable, high-performance TensorFlow graphs. Instead I want to try to explain just the basics, just enough to give you a workable mental model of what decorators are and how to use them. 385 usec per loop Para medir el tiempo transcurrido durante la ejecución de una función, el siguiente decorador, que hace uso de la función time. Their exist different decorators in the Numba library and we will talk about them later, but for the start we will concentrate on the @jit one. One way to do it would be by using partial so that the function, 'superMegaIntenseFunction' is used as a callable (ie without the ()) in the timer or directly inside timeit. Simple timeit decorator for benchmark functions. Time a Python Function Without ArgumentsThe module function timeit. This page shows you how to use timeit module for timing the speed of a function that has one or more parameter. and there are some tools made for this purpose. You can find all the examples from this article here. Join 575,000 other learners and get started learning Python for data science today! Welcome. Instead of using a decorator to mark the function, you would use a function annotation on **kwargs. The new time. By choosing the operators wisely, mathematicians can employ their visual brain to help them do math better: they'll discover new interesting laws sooner because sometimes the symbols on the blackboard just jump at you and suggest a path to an elusive proof. Here's one approach building on your code. By default, timeout-decorator uses signals to limit the execution time of the given function. Stata- Stopping at the variable before a specified variable in a varlist. So I've decided to use a decorator that decorates the functions with that. So as not to disturb your neighbors, the following example will only run the decorated code during the day:. As functions are first class objects you can pass a function into another function and it can also return a function as its result. What would you like to do?. @decorator. It has both command line as well as callable interfaces. The first one creates a logging object and. The timeit module uses a platform-specific method to get the most accurate run time. List of awesome decorators that could be useful in Python projects. 1 The Basics. In this tutorial, we are going to be discussing decorators. mainly functions and methods) to change their behavior. You can decorate with or without parentheses, as in: Python's @dataclass. strftime() Back to Top. Decorator Pattern. exec() gets the global interactive namespace (where wraps, logger and add go in your example), and the local namespace of the function that called timeit (containing args and kwargs), but it doesn't get the namespace from logger, where func and new_func live. A Python decorator is a specific change to the Python syntax that allows us to more conveniently alter functions and methods (and possibly classes in a future version). Python decorator are the function that receive a function as an argument and return another function as return value. The best explanation of Python decorators I've ever seen. clock Two useful functions for time measurement are time. They are excellent as an introduction to the topic, but they just scratch the surface of the power decorators can bring to your application. Function naming follows the same rules of writing identifiers in Python. A function returning another function, usually applied as a function transformation using the @wrapper syntax. Functions exposed in this way can be called from formulas in an Excel worksheet and appear in the Excel function wizard. I had to edit it and replace @timeit by @time to make it run. The above decorator function returns an integer instead of a function. Start by using Python's packaging tool, pip, to install the line_profiler package:. Python is hard to optimize because almost everything is mutable: builtin functions, function code, global variables, local variables, can be modified at runtime. 其实平时使用测试应用运行时间的情况 细算一下还真的很少。很久没有做性能优化的工作,不管是cProfile还是timeit模块都已经生疏了很久没有使用,我在以前的文章里面有提到过cPfile的性能测试使用,但是一直没有使用过这个更轻量级的运行时间测量库进行过仔细实践总结,今天就来总结一下。. mainly functions and methods) to change their behavior. In this fourth instalment in the Python Beyond Intermediate Series we will explore how to write our own decorators to time both function calls and blocks of code and then we will cover the timeit. fibmem without memoization is the classic naive implementation that grows exponentially and obv that would benefit from memoization. A discussion of Python decorators, why they're considered functions, how you can pass an argument to a decorator, and everything else you need to know. Braindump: Use a Decorator to Time your Python Function laur; July 4 July 4 July 4. A recursive function terminates, if with every recursive call the solution of the problem is downsized and moves towards a base case. The expression for the parameter decorator will be called as a function at runtime, with the following three. Apply Python to data science with tools such as IPython and Jupyter; Utilize Python for web development and build a real-world app using Django; Book Description. route("/") above my logic, then poof, suddenly that code will be executed when I go to the root url on the server. What Python does when it sees @decorator is to call the decorator function with the wrapped function as it's first argument (in this case the show_page function). It provides examples timeit, repeat, multiple statements and methods. The module function timeit. So now, let's start exploring this handy library! The module function timeit. I am reluctant to do this because it leaks implementation details to the tests. mydata = generate_data(xyz) f1(mydata) f2(mydata). This answer is posted just because most of us are unaware of how decorators work in python and this answer. Learn Python online: Python tutorials for developers of all skill levels, Python books and courses, Python news, code examples, articles, and more. Beginner’s Guide to Using Databases with Python: Postgres, SQLAlchemy, and Alembic; Using Docker for Flask Application Development; Secure Docker in Production; Speed up Development with Docker Compose; Mastering Markdown; Naming Branches; How to use `git mergetool` to resolve conflicts; Change the last line in a file. Even though it is the same underlying concept, we have two different kinds of decorators in Python: Function decorators Class decorators A decorator in Python is any callable Python object that is used to modify a function or a class. In our previous tutorial, we were talking about list comprehension and generators, and the. The decorator statement is limited in what it can accept -- arbitrary expressions will not work. Until now, Python did not provide directly a portable function to measure CPU time. So just like a child inherits characteristics from both mother and father, in python, we can inherit multiple classes in a single child class. Furthermore, NumPy enriches the programming language Python with powerful data structures, implementing multi-dimensional arrays and matrices. Python timit decorator. timeit (stmt='pass', setup='pass', timer=, number=1000000, globals=None) ¶ Create a Timer instance with the given statement, setup code and timer function and run its timeit() method with number executions. ' Decorators are most often used to extend a function, by adding something either before or after it. the decorator closest to the func-tion runs first, followed by the second closest, etc. You can use it to time small code snippets. Map Function to List. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. And now we see this name, __builtins__, returned by a call to dir(). At one point, it will be difficult to figure out the actual code and what you will see is the repetition of this code. You want to see the speed of f1, f2, when the argument is huge. Take for example Flask's routing mechanism. Just drop a new Python file starting with test and it'll be picked up next time you run the tests. In 1 hour, you'll be able to work with the language. (Replacing the behavior of a method, attribute, object or class). The 3rd edition has been revised and updated to focus on the most recent innovations in Python; In Detail. Another solution is to rewrite the code to expose the decorated function. sleep() time. Description. f is called the “decorated” function, and g is called the “decorator. Python Forums on Bytes. A function is merely an object of type function. Class decorators are applied to the entire class definition all in one go. Understanding Python decorators optimizing a recursive Fibonacci implementation Mon 31 August 2015 | in Programmazione, Python | tags: decorators fibonacci memoization memoize optimization Python A decorator is a Python function that takes a function object as an argument and returns a function as a value. Python: timeit - decorator func to time your function calls - time_me. (An archived answer from StackOverflow. These are- default, keyword, and arbitrary arguments. Practice different ways of applying the decorator to the function print_sum().